General Guidelines

General Guidelines

Articles submitted to Monograf must use 12 pt. Times New Roman, with 1,5 lines spacing. Required number of words is 3000-12.000 for argumentative papers and 1000-3000 for book reviews and similar articles. All articles must be written in either Turkish or English.

Authors must follow the 6th edition of the APA citation style.


Formatting Guidelines

Title: The title of must reflect the essential concepts and arguments of the article. It must not consist of more than 10-12 words and must be written in 14 pt. bold font. The first letter of each word must be capitalized.

Name of the Author: Author’s name must be placed underneath the title. Author’s institution and e-mail adress must be included as a footnote to the title.

Abstract: The abstract must be placed above the main body of text, in Turkish and English, one paragraph each. It must be a maximum of 200 words long and use 10 pt. font with single spacing.

Key Words: 5 key words must be given underneath both the Turkish and the English versions of the abstract, in respective languages.

Main Body: The main body of text must use 12 pt. Times New Roman with 1,5 spacing.

Tables, Graphics, Pictures and Schemes: Visuals used in the text must be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2 or Graphic 1, Graphic 2) and placed in corresponding parts of the text.


  • References should be cited alphabetically, based on authors’ last names.
  • In citing the publisher of a book, words like “press” or “books” must be omitted from the publisher’s name.

Example: İstanbul: İletişim

London: Routledge

  • If the original publication date of a classic work is known, then the phrase “First published in [year]” is included at the end of the citation entry in parentheses.


Below are some basic rules for writing your list of references.


Book with Single Author:

Gürbilek, N. (1999). Ev Ödevi. İstanbul: Metis.

Huch, R. (2005). Alman Romantizmi. Gürsel Aytaç (Trans.). İstanbul: Doğu Batı.

Book with Multiple Authors:

Bilkan, A. F. ve Aydın, Ş. (2007). Sebk-i Hindi ve Türk Edebiyatında Hint Tarzı. İstanbul: 3F.

Karakaşlı, K., Kentel, F., Özdoğan, G. G., Üstel, F. (2009). Türkiye’de Ermeniler: Cemaat-Birey-Yurttaş. İstanbul: Bilgi Üniversitesi.

Book with Editor:

Irzık, S. ve Parla, J. (Ed.) (2014). Kadınlar Dile Düşünce. İstanbul: İletişim.

Chapter from a Book with Editor:

Holbrook, V. R. (1999). Alegorinin Ölümü, Hüsn ü Aşk’ın Özgünlüğü. Mehmet Kalpaklı (Ed.), Osmanlı Divan Şiiri Üzerine Metinler (p. 403-412). İstanbul: Yapı Kredi.


Barry, P. (2002). Beginning theory: An introduction to literary and cultural theory. [Adobe Digital Editions version]. http://libgen.org/book/index.php?md5=4AA8553A1EB6CCB988011B28BA4FE19C

Taylor, C. (2001). Radical enlightenment. Sources of the self: The making of the modern identity (Vol. IV, pp. 321-354). http://books.google.com/books

Article from Periodical:

Köroğlu, E. (2011). Yahya Kemal Şiirinde Anlatısallık, Kapanışlar ve Tarih Anlayışı. Yeniyazı, 11, 60-70.

Article from Online Journal:

Anderson, A. K. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 154, 258–281. doi:10.1037/0096- 3445.134.2.258

Pelvanoğlu, E. (2014). Orfeus’un arzusu: Tanpınar’ın sembolist estetiği bağlamında Huzur için bir yakın okuma denemesi. Monograf, 2.  http://www.monografjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/2.-sayı-pelvanoglu.pdf


Uçman, A. (1989). Akif Paşa. İslam ansiklopedisi (Vol. 2, pp. 261-263). İstanbul: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı.


Contemplation. (1989). The Oxford English dictionary, Vol. III. (2nd Edition, Vol. 3). Oxford: Clarenden Press.

-In-text: (Contemplation, 1989)

Unpublished Dissertation:

Atabağsoy, N. (2010). Edip Cansever Şiirinde Tek Seslilik: Tragedyalar ve Ben Ruhi Bey Nasılım. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bilkent Üniversitesi / Ekonomi ve Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Newspaper article:

Belge, M. (2008, 4 January). Tarih niçin sevilir? Radikal, p.7.

Article from online newspaper:

Tuğal, C. (2014, 13 January). İki nehrin arası bir yere dökülebilir mi? www.t24.com.tr

Source with Unknown Author:

Strong afterchocks continiue in California. (2003, 26 December). New York Times [National Edition]. p.23.


Aydoğan, Melek. (2014). From elifba to alphabet: The history of learning to read. Interview with Benjamin C. Fortna. Monograf. January 2014. Link http://www.monografjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/7-fortna.pdf


Erdem, R. (Yönetmen). (2010). Kosmos [Film]. TR: Atlantik.

-In-text: (Kosmos, 2010)


In-Text Citations

  • Source with single author:

Author’s last name, the year of publication of their work and page number are cited respectively, in parentheses.

Example: (Eagleton, 2014, p. 203)

  • Source with two authors:

Last names of both authors are cited.

Example: (Gilbert ve Gubar, 2000, p.37)

  • Source with multiple authors:

For sources with multiple authors, the last name of the author that comes first in alphabetical order is followed by the abbreviation “et al.”

Example: (Brooker et al., 2005, p.126)

To differentiate between sources whose first authors are the same, names of the other authors must be cited.

  • Anonymous source:

For sources with unknown authors, the first two or three words of title are cited in italics, along with the publication date.

Example: As we see in another source (College Cost Book, 1983)…

As we see in College Cost Book (1983)…

  • Multiple sources by the same author:

Multiple works of an author are cited in chronological order.

Example: (Dellaloğlu, 2012) (Dellaloğlu, 2013)

  • Footnotes:

Please always use footnotes and never endnotes.

  • Titles of the sources:

Titles of books, journals, newspapers, encyclopedia, films, and video are cited in italics.

Example: In Mahmut Mutman’s (2014) book The Politics of Writing Islam: Voicing Difference  (…)

Titles of articles are given in quotation marks. Example: Şerif Mardin (2002) argues in his article “Tanzimattan Sonra Aşırı Batılılaşma” (…)

  • Long in-text citations:

Quotations consisting of more than 40 words are given in the form of block quotations. Block quotations must be 11 pt, single spaced and indented 1 tab from the left margin. Block quotations must not be put in quotation marks.

Örnek:  According to Franco Moretti (2013)

This syntony between modernism and and the metropolis arises first and foremost out of a common enthusiasm for the growing division of labour. In the theoretical field, it’s the analytical breakthrough of the Formalist school; in the artistic field, techniques such as polyphony, rooted in the proliferation of professional jargons and sectorial codes. Specialism, for this happy generation, is freedom; freedom from the (narrow) measure of the (bad) taste of the (bourgeois) nineteenth century. (p.34).

  • Short in-text citations:

Quotations that are 40 words or fewer are included in the main body and enclosed in quotation marks.

Example: When talking about narratives centred around female middle-class protagonists Susan Fraiman (1993) observes that they “tend to insist that personal destiny evolves in dialectical relation to historical events, social structures, and other people.” (p. 10)

  • Quotations from secondary sources

When using information from a source cited in another source, the secondary source is cited.

Example: Interpersonal relationships during childhood can form the basis of various complexes and may take part in the formation of all levels of the psyche such as emotion, attitude and behaviour (Laplanche and Pontalis as cited in Koçak, 1996).


  • Paraphrasing sources

If a source is paraphrased without using a direct quotation, author’s last name and  date of publication must be given in parentheses.

Example: However, collective memory is not a summation of individual memories but different forms of memories that breed and determine one another (Halbwachs, 1994).

If the name of the author is integrated into the sentence, date of publication is given in parentheses after the name, and the page number is given at the end.

Example: According to Rudolf Arnheim (1974) photography helps humans view themselves, maintain and expand their experiences, and exchange important messages (p. 160).

Örnek: According to Douwe Draaisma (2007) against the impermanence that is implicitly existent in the mortality of memory, we secure ourselves by developing artifical memories in opposition to the existing inpermanence (p.19).


  • Authors with the same last name:

When citing two or more authors with the same last name, their first names must be given as well.

Example: Tanıl Bora (2011), Aksu Bora (2014).

  • In-text citation of two or more sources

Authors’ last names and dates of publication are enclosed in the same parentheses.

Example: (Armağan 2011; Esen 2006).